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Insurance Terms I - L

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Identity Theft Insurance
Coverage for expenses incurred as the result of an identity theft. Can include costs for notarizing fraud affidavits and certified mail, lost income from time taken off from work to meet with law-enforcement personnel or credit agencies, fees for reapplying for loans and attorney's fees to defend against lawsuits and remove criminal or civil judgments.
 
Indemnify
Provide financial compensation for losses.
 
Inland Marine Insurance
This broad type of coverage was developed for shipments that do not involve ocean transport. Covers articles in transit by all forms of land and air transportation as well as bridges, tunnels and other means of transportation and communication. Floaters that cover expensive personal items such as fine art and jewelry are included in this category. (See Floater)
 
Insurance
A system to make large financial losses more affordable by pooling the risks of many individuals and business entities and transferring them to an insurance company or other large group in return for a premium.
 
Insurance Pool
A group of insurance companies that pool assets, enabling them to provide an amount of insurance substantially more than can be provided by individual companies to ensure large risks such as nuclear power stations. Pools may be formed voluntarily or mandated by the state to cover risks that can’t obtain coverage in the voluntary market such as coastal properties subject to hurricanes. (See Beach And Windstorm Plans; Fair Access To Insurance Requirements Plans / FAIR Plans; Joint Underwriting Association / JUA)
 
Insurance Score
Insurance scores are confidential rankings based on credit information. This includes whether the consumer has made timely payments on loans, the number of open credit card accounts and whether a bankruptcy filing has been made. An insurance score is a measure of how well consumers manage their financial affairs, not of their financial assets. It does not include information about income or race.

Studies have shown that people who manage their money well tend also to manage their most important asset, their home, well. And people who manage their money responsibly also tend to handle driving a car responsibly. Some insurance companies use insurance scores as an insurance underwriting and rating tool.

Insurance-To-Value
Insurance written in an amount approximating the value of the insured property.
 
Joint Underwriting Association / JUA
Insurers which join together to provide coverage for a particular type of risk or size of exposure, when there are difficulties in obtaining coverage in the regular market, and which share in the profits and losses associated with the program. JUAs may be set up to provide auto and homeowners insurance and various commercial coverages, such as medical malpractice. (See Assigned Risk Plans; Residual Market)
 
Liability Insurance
Insurance for what the policyholder is legally obligated to pay because of bodily injury or property damage caused to another person.
 
Limits
Maximum amount of insurance that can be paid for a covered loss.
 
Line
Type or kind of insurance, such as personal lines.
 
Loss
A reduction in the quality or value of a property, or a legal liability.
 
Loss Adjustment Expenses
The sum insurers pay for investigating and settling insurance claims, including the cost of defending a lawsuit in court.
 
Loss Costs
The portion of an insurance rate used to cover claims and the costs of adjusting claims. Insurance companies typically determine their rates by estimating their future loss costs and adding a provision for expenses, profit, and contingencies.
 
Loss Of Use
A provision in homeowners and renters insurance policies that reimburses policyholders for any extra living expenses due to having to live elsewhere while their home is being restored following a disaster.
 
Loss Ratio
Percentage of each premium dollar an insurer spends on claims.
 
Loss Reserves
The company’s best estimate of what it will pay for claims, which is periodically readjusted. They represent a liability on the insurer’s balance sheet.

 

Courtesy of the Insurance Information Institute (http://www.iii.org/)
 

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